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William Gillette

Youth
The neighborhood where he was born William Gillette, Nook Farm in Hartford, Connecticut, was a literary and intellectual center, so residents as Mark Twain, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Charles Dudley Warner.
Gillette Gillette's father was Francis, a former U.S. senator and advocate for the abolition of slavery, the public domain, education and women's suffrage. His mother was Elizabeth Daggett Hooker, a descendant of Rev. Thomas Hooker, Puritan leader who founded the city Hartford and either written or inspired by the first written constitution in history to form a government. Gillette At home, young Will grew up with his three brothers and one sister. Another sister, Mary, died as a toddler. Another brother, Edward H. Gillette later became a farmer, a journalist and congressman from Illinois.
His older brother, Frank Ashbell, went to California and died there in 1859 from consumption (tuberculosis). The next brother, Robert, joined the army Union and served on the Antietam campaign, was disabled home sick, recovered and joined the Navy. Assigned to the USS Gettysburg, Robert took part in two assault on Fort Fisher, but tragically died the morning after the surrender of the fortress when the magazine exploded. When Edward's brother went west of Iowa, and his sister Elisabeth married George Henry Warner, both in 1863, William was left as the only child at home.
As a student, Gillette specialized in speech and engineering. But he always wanted to be an actor and, at age 20, he left Hartford to start learning. He worked briefly in a securities firm in New Orleans and then returned to New England, where, in the recommendation itself of Mark Twain, which debuted at the Boston Globe Theatre Twain Age-play golden period in 1875. Then, Gillette was an action actor for six years through Boston, New York and the Midwest.
During these years, Gillette irregularly attended classes at some institutions, but never completed their programs. Her family was not too happy with their profession, but (unlike many sources) that was not disinherited. In fact, his father, Francisco, who had been the greatest objection to the theater in general, offer the least resistance, and took him to the station train, telling his son who had driven two other children to the same station and had never returned, William was sure he was the exception. Francis provided an assignment in which to survive (his apprenticeship was without pay.) And when the old senator's health collapsed in late 1878, William left the stage for more than a year to care for her father in his last illness. On the death of the old senator, George Will and Henry Warner were appointed executors Francisco heritage, and they, Elisabeth and Edward shared inheritance.
In 1882, Gillette married Helen Nichols of Detroit. They were completely happy. Died in 1888 peritonitis caused by a ruptured appendix. I was devastated for years and in the spring of 1890 was shot down with tuberculosis. He did not act again for four years and never remarried.
Playwright, director and actor
Gillette in Secret Service.
In 1881, while performing in Cincinnati, Gillette was hired as a writer, director and actor for $ 50 a week two of the Frohman brothers, Gustavo and Daniel. The first book he wrote and produced was the teacher. It premiered at the Theater at Madison Square, lasting 151 performances, with a subsequent tour through many states (west to St. Louis, Missouri). That same year, was Esmeralda, written with Frances Hodgson Burnett.
Early in his career, Gillette realized it would be in the triple role of playwright, director and actor who was going to make more money, and also discovered that the best way to fill theaters was giving the public what they want: entertainment clear, healthy focusing on issues of love, honor, integrity and nobility. Also realized, and mechanical and engineering inclinations helped to special effects in the sound settings, lighting, and stage customers would out. When he starred in the hands of the Enemy, invented a way to simulate the sound of the hooves of a horse, and Sherlock Holmes developed the rise and fall of curtain in total darkness at the beginning and end of each act.
Among the leading matinee idols of his time, was described by Leslie and Amy Gibson notable ne-be materializó. stood six feet three inches tall, slender but well proportioned, with an aristocratic face and a dignified and manly in silence. Belonged to the "heroic school" sure-footed and silent amid the chaos. Its typical calm "He-Man" role was later acquired by stalwarts like Gary Cooper, Clint Eastwood and John Wayne. Never pompous, not a speaker, or a speaker, his performance was muted, always spontaneous and natural, subtle and quiet, the effects achieved by the suggestion and not that open action. Lewis Strang noted that "rarely gestures, and body movements often seem to deliberately slow and deliberate. His serenity is absolute and scope mental situation is complete.15]
He moved with skill and dignity to command all eyes on her body rigid parts, piercing eyes, and metallic voice. Tall, dignified, impassive, imperturbable, he was one of those actors whose personality dominated every role he played, varying only regarding what part of the paper he demanded the whimsical and witty, or the strong and heroic. He believed that the actor who best suits the personality play a role as well, and the role he created for himself were formed to fit your own personality and acting skills. The scenery was fascinating and profound, but not versatile. It was clearly a superior player in every aspect, but only within a limited range of functions.
He could mesmerize an audience simply standing motionless and silent, or fall into any of his grand gestures and subtle gestures. No gesture often, but when he did, that was everything. He steal a scene with a simple nod, shrug, a glance, a contraction of the fingers, a compression of the lips, or hardening of his face. Slight inflections of her voice raved. ccasionally, Georg Schüttler said, hen was least expected, made a gesture or move your body so fast that the speed of action is compared with the rapid opening and closing of a camera shutter.16]
He used his mind instead of your emotions, and carefully calculated each move, every nuance, each contraction, every change of expression, in order to produce the best effect. SE Dahlinger summed it up: ithout seems to raise his voice you've seen the strength of an emotion that could be exciting, without bombast or infinitely touching without falling into sentimentality. One of his greatest strengths as an actor was the ability to say anything at all on stage, but relies on a contemplation that participate within an emotional crisis or comedy hold a hearing on silence, awaiting the moment when talking again.17]
He was an actor without emotions, unable to move, even in scenes of love, Montrose Moses said and made appeals through the feeling of the situation throughout the exquisite sensitivity of detail to the outside, rather than through the romantic and fervor of heart. "
His performances were recognized by the arrest, even stumbling as he went about it. elements of life had gone into action, stated, as each performance that he was a "life simulation." Therefore, it was important for the actors and actresses to speak their lines lines already written and taught as if they were inventing on the fly, which of course is how real people talk in real life. The actor, of Gillette, he said, must speak of each line as if for the first time those words were spoken, and into every room as if for the first time I had done, not one hundredth. Therefore, will hesitate occasionally stumble over the words, and act like I was really inventing on the fly and not repeat the lines that had been recited over and over again in the earlier proceedings. Therefore, their actions were not smooth and effortless. It seemed as if you had learned his part, as if improvising or trying remember the lines, or even created on the fly that was precisely the impression he wanted to create precisely the effect he was trying to accomplish.
His style repressed also helped him adapt to a voice that was not very strong to begin with. He was thin and light, crisp and clear, with a quality head tone and limited in scope. Morehouse described it as "dry, brittle, metallic, almost strident." Gretchen Finletter recalled that it was "a dry voice, admirably suited almost monotonous for the great Holmes. monotonous, Dennis Sherk said, is a term of courtesy ardly for an actor from the likes of Gillette, but it seems that this issue was deliberately made monotone. The trick was obviously successful, as reported from the monotony of his magical voice and her ads on the service provided to other voices speaking against it.21]
Above all, he remained as its modern and contemporary. The Times noted in 1937 that "it would be difficult to convince part of the American public knew and followed all the players had walked more than ever the American stage. And it might be impossible to find another actor who at 76 could revive a part of the nineties and break to tour with him through two seasons with the length and breadth of the country. Would conservative to say that Mr. Gillette was the most successful of all American actors. "
Despite his superior talent as an actor, however, left its Gillette original impact in the western theater as a playwright. His works were known for their unity and their compact design, at a time when most did not play. It was Gillette who led the way in providing realism in staging. Brought exquisite and authentic detail in his sets, realistic sound effects and amazing lighting effects all their productions. Contributed technical and mechanical effects of improvement ideas that scenario, the greatest effect only farming and reduction of total darkness curtains to hide the changes in the output stage and the curtains, revealing the dawn light the whole scene below. This, and the elimination of between-act curtain calls and speeches, helped maintain the illusion of the officers were trying to create. And the curtain effect was one of the means by which not only preserved but emphasized the fourth wall that separates the public from the fantasy world on stage. His dialogue was realistic and his characters, within the realms of farce and melodrama, were natural both in behavior and gestures. This made them easier to identify and dramatic scenes that made even more dramatic.
He had a great sense of the dramatic, and two fascinating scenes of the hospital scene in which the enemy have the scene and Telegraph Office of the Secret Service is still considered one of the most dramatic scenes in the history of American theater. Add to these the scene Stepney Gas Chamber of Sherlock Holmes and the blackout in the electricity scene, and is a playwright with an amazing knack for spooky excitement.
He was creative in how they developed their characters, and this really for the first time in the power of the Enemy where tradition ended with clear distinction between the hero and villain characters sometimes presented a mixture of both, and became a spy sympathetic hero of the piece. Cousin of Richard Burton wrote that illetta has been since the first daring in its treatment of character. He hates the conventional water holy hell, and a puzzle to his audience a little bit to portray a person who refuses to enter a category and be labeled or villain] hero.24
What made Gillette two of the Civil War was unique and popular plays that refused to take sides. North and South tried alike, providing integrity, loyalty and honor of both, and as he was a spy hero every game friendly. However, what sets Gillette, apart from everything else was not just his confidence in the realism, his imperturbable naturalistic acting, or his superior sense of the dramatic. At a time when American art of all kinds are carried out by the British in very low esteem, as well as a pioneer in making Pan American drama, rejection of what had been until then a dominant European influence in Latin theater.25]
It was, in fact, the first authentically American playwright whose plays were not only accepted but highly respected on both sides of the Atlantic. This was no small achievement, when, from country was founded, the actors in both countries preferred plays only British act at hearings in both countries would only play UK to see, and Latin plays exported to England had to be converted by the British play-doctors in British productions even flavored made. Gillette changed all that with the one held by the enemy. At the time of the secret service hit the island scepter, the conquest was history.
Inventor
During a production of 1886 to 1887 Place: of the enemy, Gillette introduced a new method of his own invention, which simulates a horse's gallop. Where men had closed half shell coconut in a marble slab to simulate the sound, Gillette found this awkward and unrealistic. Applied for on June 9, Letters Patent No. 389,294 was issued to him on 11 September. Ethod is the title of stage effects. It was a method, not a mechanical device, so there were no pictures in the paper two pages. And the patent is broad, the introduction of new and useful methods to imitate the sound of a horse or horses approaching, leaving or passing at a gallop jogging, or any movement you want, the same as that used in the production of stage effects in theatrical or other performances, exhibitions, etc.
His method was to eat with coconut palms, representing the hooves of a horse, of the material used to represent the road bed on which it is assumed that the horse to travel, as well as compaction, kicking, or jumping over a conflicting way, while the rider is increasing, then starting, for the first time in a trot and then at a gallop, and finally, run one, or in any gear you want, in any order. He can also imitate the sounds of pounding hooves on different surfaces: the tone, bricks, clay, gravel, grass or across bridges.26]
It was the first patent was applied for and received. In 1883 presented the first of four patent applications in the Patent and Trademark Office for a time stamp, and stamps on the top surface of a sphere and documents a or more dial indicators, which represents the time of day at which the documents sealed by the same label, respectively, were well. "Four applications were accepted.
Back
Charles Frohman was a young Broadway producer who has had success with the exchange between the U.S. theatrical productions and the United Kingdom. Having produced some of the works of Gillette, the two formed a stronger partnership. His productions have had great success, sweeping society Gillette point London, which had historically been reluctant to accept American theater. In place of the enemy in 1887, Gillette became the first American playwright to achieve real success on the British scene with a truly American game.
Secret Service
Gillette finally came totally out of retirement Too October 1894 in Johnson, an adaptation of the French farce, La Plantation Thomassin, Maurice Ordonneau. After his debut in the Park Theatre in Waltham, Massachusetts, opened on 29 October at the Columbia Theatre in Brooklyn. This farce was extremely popular, and has been produced repeatedly step in the century since its debut.
In 1895 he gave birth to the greatest work I would never write, the Secret Service. It was the absolute best of the Civil War many works produced after the war, and was the pinnacle of his literary career as a playwright and dramatist. His approach was unbiased and nonpartisan total, giving the characters of both sides of the conflict all the finest qualities of patriotism, the courage and honor that demanded good melodrama. He never got into the reasons for the war. The only motivation that allows its characters was their loyalty to their respective causes, and the loyalty of both parties were given equal honor and nobility of purpose and action. Moreover, having made available to the Enemy, Gillette became a spy in the sympathetic hero of the work, and had an affair the main focus of the work rather than military conflict in which the players were involved.
Secret Service was performed at the Broad Street Theatre in Philadelphia for two weeks from May 13, 1895, with Maurice Barrymore in the lead role. Gillette rewrote some of the scripts and acted in the play when it premiered at the Garrick Theatre on October 5, 1896. It was the first time he had taken the role of romantic hero in a their own works. The production ran until March 6, 1897, and was a huge critical and commercial success.
After its American success, Frohman reserved Secret Service to open at the Adelphi Theatre in the West End in London on May 15, 1897, and became the cornerstone of Frohman achievements in England.
Sherlock Holmes
Meanwhile Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Holmes felt that I was drowning and keep more worthy literary work, had completed its series of Sherlock Holmes and Holmes was killed in The Final Problem, published in 1893. Subsequently, however, Doyle was the need for additional revenue, as it was planned to build a new home. He decided to take his character on stage, and wrote a play. Holmes had appeared in two earlier stage works by other authors, a parody of Charles Brookfield Under the Clock (1893) and the work of John Webb Sherlock Holmes (1894), however, now Doyle wrote a new 5-Act play Holmes and Watson in his years of freshmen as detectives.
Doyle offered the first role of Henry Irving and Beerbohm Tree then. However, Irving refused and demanded tree Holmes Doyle to readjust to their unique performance profile, but also wanted to play both Holmes and Professor Moriarty. Doyle rejected the offer, taking into account that this reduction character.
Noting that the play needed a lot of work, the literary agent AP Watt sent the script to Charles Frohman that he traveled to London to meet with Doyle. There, Frohman suggested the possibility of an adaptation of Gillette. Doyle endorsed this Frohman and obtained the staging-copyright. Doyle insisted one thing: there would be no love interest in "Sherlock Holmes." Frohman launched a Victorian version of "Trust me!"
Gillette, who then read the entire collection for the first time, liked the idea and began showing the piece in San Francisco, while still touring on the Service Secret. Both artists became confident. On one occasion, after having exchanged numerous telegrams in the work, Gillette Doyle cabled: "I can Holmes marry? The unwavering Doyle said: "You may marry him, or murder or whatever you want with it."
Interest Love is in keeping with the melodramatic style of the era, which focused on the romance and happy endings. Gillette always gave his audience a degree of romanticism, and always happy endings.
Famously Currencies
Gillette's version consisted of five scenes in two acts. Combining elements of several Doyle's stories, which mainly use the fields "A Scandal in Bohemia" and "The Final Problem." In addition, there were elements of Study in Scarlet, The Sign of Four, The Boscombe Valley Mystery, and The Greek Interpreter. However, with the exception of Holmes, Watson, Moriarty and Billy Pageboy, all other characters were their own inventions.
Intellectual than the original only, "a machine instead of a man," Gillette played Holmes as brave and open to express their feelings. He wore his hunting cap on stage, which was originally featured in the illustrations of Sidney Paget in the 1890's. Gillette also briar pipe introduced curved or bent, instead of straight pipe represented by illustrators, supposedly to Gillette could pronounce their lines more easily, actually, it's so hard to say clearly whether the pipe lines is bent or straight, and may have been the face of Gillette was easier to see from their seats with a bent briar in the mouth. Gillette also made use of a magnifying glass, a violin and a syringe, which all came from the Canon and has established like all the "pillars" of the Sherlock Holmes character.
Gillette made the whole phrase: "Oh, this is elementary, my dear friend," which was reused later by Clive Brook, the first talking about film-Holmes, as "Elementary, my dear Watson", better known line of Holmes and expressions most famous in the English language.
Irene Adler, the woman in the series, was replaced by Alice Faulkner, young and beautiful that he intended to avenge the murder of his sister, but eventually falls in love with Holmes, and the page, no name in the Canon, was given the name of Billy Gillette, a name that carried over into the films of Basil Rathbone and has continued ever since.
Sherlock Holmes or The Strange Case of Miss Faulkner (later renamed Sherlock Holmes - A Drama in Four Acts) was completed. Then, one night Secret Service the company was playing in San Francisco and staying at the Hotel Baldwin. The script was in possession of his secretary, William Postance, in his room at the Baldwin when the fire left the room owned by the Baldwin Theatre through the hotel on the morning of November 23. The financial loss was estimated at nearly $ 1,500,000. Only two deaths were known at first, when several people were missing, and while the flames were confined to the Baldwin, smoke and water damaged nearby structures.
Postance barely escaped, but the entire script was reduced to ashes. Postance went to the Hotel Palace, where Gillette was asleep and woke up at 3:30 in the morning to break the bad news. Not too happy about being disturbed in the middle of the night, Gillette simply asked, s this hotel on fire? He said he was not told Postance, ell, come and tell me about the morning.31]
With the two original scripts - Doyle and adaptation Gillette - destroyed, Gillette rewrote the play, either from notes or an extra copy in a month.
Doyle and Gillette had never met. So Doyle was shock understandable when the train stopped, and Sherlock Holmes got to the platform. However, there he was, spare figure with long aquiline features and sunken eyes. Sitting in his landau, Doyle provides the appearance of open-mouthed astonishment until the actor took out a magnifying glass, examined closely Doyle's face and said (Just like Holmes could have been done), "Without a doubt an author!"
Doyle broke into laughter and the partnership was sealed with joy and hospitality Undershaw weekend. The two became lifelong friends.
Holmes Tour
William Gillette as Sherlock Holmes
Lithograph - 1900
Collection Library of Congress
After a performance of copyright in England, Sherlock Holmes debuted on October 23, 1899, at the Star Theatre in Buffalo. After appearances in Rochester and Syracuse and Scranton and Wilkes-Barre in Pennsylvania, Sherlock Holmes made her Broadway debut at the Garrick Theatre on November 6, 1899, by up to 16 June 1900. It was an immediate success. Gillette applied all its dazzling special effects on the mass public.
But it faced sharp, even mocking, the reviews of newspapers, especially about love Holmes. In the original novels of Conan Doyle, Holmes is said to have an "aversion to women." As a matter of fact, over 34 years, critics almost always praised the quality and special effects, but not the game itself.
The company also tour nationally, throughout the western United States, from October 8, 1900, to March 30, 1901. This was reinforced by another company also, Cuyler Hastings, through the smaller cities and Australia.
After a week before his debut in Liverpool, the company debuted in London (September 9, 1901) at the Lyceum Theatre, acting in Duke of York's Theatre later.
It was another hit with their audiences, despite failing to convince the critics. 12 weeks appointed originally were in the middle room. The production was extended until April 12, 1902 (256 performances), including a gala for the King Edward VII on 1 February. Then England tour and Scotland, with two auxiliary groups: North (HA Saintsbury) and South (with Julian Royce). At the same time, the work was produced in other countries (including Australia, Sweden and South Africa).
The dean of British actors, Sir Henry Irving, was touring the United States when Sherlock Holmes opened the Garrick Theatre, and Irving saw Gillette as Holmes. The two actors met and Irving completed negotiations of Sherlock Holmes to start a long season at the Lyceum Theatre in London beginning in early May. Gillette was the first actor ever to be invited to play in the scenario illustrates, it was a huge honor. Irving was the doyen of British actors, the first to be knighted, and the Lyceum was the theater.
Sherlock Holmes made his British debut at the Shakespeare Theatre in Liverpool on September 2, 1900. It was the beginning of a great triumph. Gillette opened Sherlock Holmes at the Lyceum in London on September 9. The tour Liceo Gillette scored only about $ 100,000, and made the most money of all productions in the final years Irving tenure at the Lyceum.
In the U.S., Gillette toured again from 1902 to 2003, until November 1903, when Gillette starred in The Admirable Crichton by James M. Barrie, Barrie personally requested. His own work, electricity, appeared in 1910, and acted in Victorien Sardou's diplomacy in 1914, Clara Kummer is a calamity success in 1917, Barrie Dear Brutus in 1918, and his The Dream Maker in 1921. A brief revival of Sherlock Holmes in early 1923 did not generate enough interest to Back to Broadway, so he retired to his estate Hadlyme.
Worldwide Fame
During his lifetime, Gillette Sherlock Holmes submitted approximately 1,300 times (third on the historical stage-record), before American and English public. He was also amply demonstrated, through appearances in many magazines, through photographs or cartoons strips, and was also well represented on the covers of the theater programs.
Meanwhile, around the world, the production was carried out, based on Gillette's Sherlock Holmes. These were satirical, which were very successful, and / or improper, some lasting several seasons. Frohman lawyers tried to curb the illegal phenomenon exhausted, travel abroad, from court to court.
Even Gillette once parodied. The dilemma of the Sorrows of Sherlock Holmes, the first a handful of one-act plays was going to write was written by two benefits, and first performed at the Joseph Jefferson Holland benefit at the Metropolitan Opera House on 24 March. Holland was an actor who had been forced to retire the year before due to illness. The scene is titled The Dilemma of Sherlock Holmes, Challenger, and were there but five characters of the whole scene: Holmes, Billy the page, the mad Gwendolyn Cobb (who had almost all the dialogue), and the two assistants who come to take aluable the crazy away. Its original title was a fantasy in a tenth of an act, and the entire scene transpires in Holmes of Baker Street room Somewhere on the date yesterday.34 previous day]
The new title dilemma Harrowing of Sherlock Holmes, which was performed again on April 14 in favor of the Company of Actors of America in the Criterion Theatre, and again in the Duke of York Theatre in London, where Gillette is inserted on Oct. 3 as a backdrop for Clarice. Billy Playing in the background, as well as Clarice, a young man Charles Chaplin.
Models for the portrait of Holmes
The Collier's Weekly magazine (USA) and Strand (United Kingdom) Conan Doyle pushed eagerly offering to continue the series of Sherlock Holmes, for a generous salary. The new chapter was first published in 1901, first with a prequel and later revived definitely Holmes (1903). Was continued for another quarter century.
Gillette was the model for images artist Frederic Dorr Steele, who appeared in Collier's Weekly then and reproduced by U.S. media. In addition, Steele contributed Conan Doyle book covers, fairy Gillette (Baker Street Irregulars) and, later, with the market where Gillette made his farewell performance.
The international copyright law did not exist, the number of Conan Doyle were printed widely in the U.S., especially with pictures of Gillette on the stage. PF Collier & Owned by the copyright of the illustrations and published drawings Steele on many issues.
In 1907 he was caricatured in the cover of Vanity Fair by the famous Sir Leslie Ward (who signed his work "spy"), and later became the subject of such famous American cartoonists and Pamela Coleman Smith, Ralph Barton, Al Freuh
Through such international exposure, Gillette became the image of Holmes for decades, created the image of Holmes, that remains to this day, and made the detective so real that many, both then and now, I think the detective really lived.
Gillette Castle
Gillette Castle.
While most jobs Gillette has long been forgotten, his last great masterpiece is still well known today: etirement embattled home.
The Washington Post called height of his dreams.38] He once called his "pile of stones Hadlyme. Others called him pile of rocks or illetta madness. "Today, we simply call Gillette Castle.
Ironically he never referred to it as a castle, but the neighbors did, but that success ummarizes where all their dreams were built, the dreams that urned picturesque heritage in a child's dream paradise.38]
In 1913, while surfing the Connecticut River on his houseboat, Gillette discovered a hill, part of the Seven Sisters, a ferry pier in Hadlyme. The trailer, landed and rose. I was so amazed by the view that bought 115 acres (0.47 km2) of land, next month. He decided to build a castle in this place, supposedly inspired by or modeled loosely after the Château de Moulineaux, a French feudal castle built during the reign of the Dukes of Normandy and partners folklore with Robert Le Diable (Robert the Devil.) The design of the castle and its museum has many innovative designs, and the whole castle is designed for more small details, Gillette itself.
During the five years of construction, Gillette lived aboard his boat, the Aunt Polly, named after mountain of a woman in South Carolina tending to him when he was sick, or had bought a house in Greenport, Long Island. The material for the castle was taken by an antenna-car designed by him. conical walls 5 feet (1.5 m) thick at the base of 3 feet (0.91 m) in the upper levels of the castle. The castle has 24 rooms and 47 doors, hand carved puzzle locks that have been designed also for Gillette. The main room measures 30 by 50 feet (15 m) and was 19 feet (5.8 m) tall, with a complex system of mirrors to monitor the public rooms of the castle of his bedroom. He explained this as a means "to make a grand entrance into the appropriate time. "
The mansion was completed in 1919, at a cost of $ 1 million U.S.. Gillette called Seven Sisters. Your little train was his personal pride. design of the train was 3 miles (4.8 km) long, and traveled all around the property, crossing bridges and passing through a tunnel designed by Gillette. Gillette also enjoyed a ride on his property in the company of their guests, including the famous physicist Albert Einstein, former U.S. president Calvin Coolidge and former mayor of Tokyo, Yukio Ozaki, whose 1912 gift of the Yoshino cherry blossoms still adorns the nation's capital.
After Gillette died without wife or children, declared his willingness
I consider it most unfortunate for me that I am condemned, after death, a constant awareness of the behavior of humanity on this planet to discover that the stone walls and towers and fireplaces of my home based on each point of the solid rock of Connecticut, that my railway line with its bridges, trestles, tunnels through solid rock, and stone culverts and underpasses, all built into all the details for the time (the extent that there is such a thing), that my locomotives and cars, based on the principles of safer and more efficient mechanical and these, and many other things of similar nature, must be revealed to me as in the possession of some blithering idiot who had no idea where or around him.
In 1943, Connecticut's government took property, re-baptized and Gillette Castle State Park Gillette Castle.
Located at 67 River Road, East Haddam, Connecticut, was reopened in 2002. After a period four years of restoration, costing 11 million dollars, now includes a museum, park, and many theatrical celebrations. Receives 100,000 visitors annually, which can walk or picnic there.
The castle is now No. 86002103 on the National Register of Historic Places., And remains a distinctive feature of the view from the river Connecticut.
Recent years and farewell tour
Gillette announced his retirement many times throughout his career, despite not making this up soon after death. The first announced withdrawal took place after the turn of the century, after having bought the boat Aunt Polly, who was 144 feet (44 m) long and weighed 200 tons.
Of course, Sherlock Holmes was the most important production of Gillette with 1,300 performances (in 1899-1901, 1905, 1906, 1910, 1915, 1923 and 1929-1932). In the conduct of other tours, he always forced by popular demand to include at least an extra performance of Sherlock Holmes.
In 1929, at age 76, Gillette began the farewell tour of Sherlock Holmes, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Scheduled for two seasons, extended the time in 1932. The first run of the tour included in the Theatre Guild cast actress Peg Entwistle Gillette female protagonist. Entwistle was the naive young man who committed suicide by jumping from the Hollywoodland sign in 1932.
New Amsterdam Theater in New York on November 25, 1929, a grand ceremony was held. Gillette received a book of signatures, signed by 60 eminent different world. There, in his speech, Arthur Conan Doyle said: "I believe that the production of personal gratification ... My only complaint is that it did hero of the poor of the printed page very soft object anemic compared to the glamor of his own personality that instills in his presentation on stage. "Said former President Calvin Coolidge that production was a "public service." Booth Tarkington And he said: "I'd rather see you play Sherlock Holmes to be a child again on Christmas morning. "At the same time, critics agreed, praising the performance of emotionally. His last appearance in Sherlock Holmes onstage and took place on March 19, 1932, in Wilmington, Delaware.
His last stage appearance was in Three Wise Fools strong Austin Wizards in 1936, co-starring with Charles Coburn, James Kirkwood, Brandon Tynan, Isabel Irving, and Mary Rogers, daughter of comedian Will Rogers.
Gillette died on April 29 1937, in Hartford, due to pulmonary hemorrhage. He was buried in the Hooker family cemetery in Farmington, Hartford County, Connecticut, with his wife.
Bibliography
In his lifetime, Gillette wrote 13 original works, adaptations, 7 and some collaborations, covering the farce, melodrama and the adaptation of the novel. Two pieces on Civil War remains his greatest works: In the hands of his enemy (1886) and Secret Service (1896). Both were hit with audiences and critics, and Secret Service remains the sole of his works currently available on VHS and DVD of a 1977 commercial archive Broadway theater production starring John Lithgow and Meryl Streep. He won more than 3 million dollars in the development, most of his tour and other productions of Sherlock Holmes.
Beloved Bullywingle (Held in Hartford, Connecticut, October 3, 1892, again in March 1873).
Siamese Twins (July 1879, never happened).
Professor (summer 1879, tested in Columbus, Ohio).
Esmeralda (adapted from Frances Hodgson Burnett story, October 29, 1881, the Madison Square Theatre in New York, published by the Madison Square Theatre in 1881).
Digby Secretary (adapted from Gustave Von Der Bibliothek Moser, September 29, 1884, New York Comedy Theatre, New York).
The Secretary Private (adapted from Gustave Von Der Bibliothek Moser, February 9, 1885, the Madison Square Theatre, New York).
In enemy hands (22 February 1886, the Criterion Theatre Brooklyn, New York, published by Samuel French Ltd. in 1898).
She (the dramatization of the novel by Rider Haggard, November 29, 1887, Niblo's Garden, New York).
A Legal Shipwreck (August 14, 1888, the Madison Square Theatre, New York, published by the Society Rockwood publication in 1890).
A legal ruin (novelization, Rockwood pub. Co., 1888).
An accident Confederation (1888, never produced).
Robert Elsmere (part dramatization of the novel by Mary Augusta Ward, unable to obtain the permission of Mrs. Ward, Gillette suspended work on the project, and was dramatized and produced by others without his participation).
"Gillette Mr. William Field Polls, Harper's Weekly, Vol XXXIII, No. 1676, February 2, 1889, Supplement, pp 98-99.
All the comforts of home (adapted from Ein Einfall Carl Lauf of Toller, March 3, 1890, Boston Museum, Boston, Massachusetts, and published by H. Roorbach in 1897).
Maid of All Work (1890, never happened).
The Mr. Wilkinson's Widows (adapted from Alexandre Bisson Toupinel Feu, March 23, 1891, the National Theatre, Washington, DC).
A settlement (adapted from Alexandre Bisson La Famille Pont-Biquet, August 8, 1892, the Fifth Avenue Theatre, New York).
The American Revolutionary War (January 1893, with historical commentary ine scenes, written for the people ARNUM and Baily, a script to use with episodic ast Drama of the Revolution).
Ninety days (6 February 1893, Broadway Theatre, New York).
Too Much Johnson (adapted from Maurice Ordonneau Planting Thomassin, November 26, 1894, Standard Theatre, New York, published in 1912).
Service Secret (May 13, 1895, Broad Street Theatre, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, published in 1898, published by Samuel French Ltd. in 1898).
"The story of my first Success, New York Dramatic Mirror, Christmas Number 1886, December 26, 1896, p. 30.
Because she loved him (October 28, 1898, Hyperion Theatre New Haven, Connecticut).
Sherlock Holmes (Arthur Conan Doyle, October 23, 1899, Star Theatre, Buffalo, New York, published by Samuel French, Ltd., in 1922, by Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., in 1935, and by Doubleday in 1976 and 1977).
"The house-boat in the U.S., The Prospects, vol. 65, No. 5, June 2, 1900.
Challenger's dilemma Sherlock Holmes (March 24, 1905, profits Joseph Jefferson Holland, Metropolitan Opera House, later renamed The dilemma tier of Sherlock Holmes and, finally, the painful dilemma of Sherlock Holmes, published by B. Abramson 1955).
Clarice (September 4, 1905, Liverpool, England).
Ticey, or case some Boyd (June 15, 1908, originally a theater again privately, then a new title of lady of all work the new title issue Shortly later Boyd, Colombia Theatre, Washington, DC
Samson (adapted from Bernstein Henri Sanson, October 19, 1908, Criterion Theatre, New York).
The Red Owl, originally titled Rocket (in an act Play, August 9, 1909, London Coliseum, published in a stage act Plays and study, the second series, Samuel French, Ltd., 1925, pp 47-80.
Among Thieves (in an act Play, September 6, 1909, the Palace Theatre, London published in a single act of reproduction stage and study, the second series, Samuel French, Ltd., 1925, pp 246-267.
Electricity (September 26, 1910, Park Theatre, Boston, Massachusetts, published by Samuel French Ltd. in 1924).
Secret Service: Being the happenings of a night at Richmond in the spring of 1865 (novelization, Dodd, Mead and Company, New York, and published in the United Kingdom Kessinger, 1912).
Butterfly on the wheel (1914, never produced).
Diplomacy (adapted from Victorien Sardou Dora, October 20, 1914, Empire Theatre, New York).
William Hooker Gillette: The Illusion of the first time in the interim (Dramatic Museum of Columbia University in the documents on the performance, Second Series, Number 1, 1915).
hen a play not a play, Vanity Fair, vol. 5, No. 07/05 - Vol. 6, Nos. 2-4, January-June 1916, p. 53.
Introduction to How to write a book, edited by Dudley Miles, Papers on Plays II (Dramatic Museum of Columbia University, 1916), pp 1-8.
How well does George (1919, never was published by Samuel French Ltd. in 1936).
merica Great Opportunity in the First World War: Statements Regarding your questions and conduct of members of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, from print files and free.
The dream maker (November 21, 1921, Empire Theatre, New York).
Sherlock Holmes, a play (Samuel French Ltd., 1922).
Winnie and Wolf (dramatized Bertram Atkey stories in ATURDAY Evening Post, May 14, 1923, Lyric Theatre, Philadelphia, PA).
Astounding Crime on Torrington Road (novel, Harper and Brothers, 1927).
The Crown Prince of Incas (1932-36, never finished).
Sherlock Holmes, a play (Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. 1935).
In public life of Sherlock Holmes edition
1922. First published by Samuel French.
1935. Published by Doubleday, Doran & Co. was a expensive edition contains foreword by Gillette, multi-paged basis of trivial facts and illustrations by Frederic Dorr Steele.
Filmography
In 1916, Gillette favorite cinematic adaptation of his first Sherlock Holmes, although it was not the first film about Holmes. It was a seven-reel silent film Essanay Film Manufacturing Co. led by Arthur Berthelet. Marjorie Kay played Alice Faulkner and Ernest Manpani was Moriarty. One critic noted that Gillette acid "on the verge of losing his physical strength make the character "since then, insisting that he would not be able to repeat 60 years of age. There is no copy of the film has survived.
In 1922, Goldwyn Pictures filmed another version of the game in Gillette. It was directed by Albert Parker and John Barrymore played Holmes. This has been recently restored by the George Eastman House.
Secret Service was filmed in 1919 by Paramount Pictures, directed by Hugh Ford with Robert Warwick in accordance with Gillette and Shirley Mason as the female lead.
Secret Service was filmed again in 1931 by Radio Pictures. It was directed by J. Ruben and Richard Walter Dix was the spy in the Union.
In 1977, as part of the Broadway Theatre archive, Secret Service production was filmed starring an unknown young couple John Lithgow as Captain Thorne and, as Edith Varney in his first appearance in a full-length movie, Meryl Streep. This is the only work of Gillette is still available on VHS or DVD business.
In 1981, Gillette was produced Sherlock Holmes by Home Box Office, in only his second theater production, in collaboration with the Williamstown Theatre Festival and artistic director Nikos Psacharopoulos, and was aired on November 19, 1981, with replays on November 23, 1927, 29, and December 1 and 5. This production starring Frank Langella as Holmes, Stephen Collins Larrabee, Susan Clark as Madge Larrabee, Richard Woods as Dr. Watson, and 12-year-old Christian Slater as Billy the page. This production is not available on VHS or DVD commercial.
Radio
On October 20, 1930, Gillette made the first series of radio-version of Sherlock Holmes: The Adventure of the speckled band. It was based on the original theatrical version of Conan Doyle, retrofitted by Edith Meiser, and was the first time that Holmes was portrayed on radio as part of a continuum. It aired on NBC WEAF- (New York) and sponsored by Mr. G. Washington Coffee Co.. This show became a series pilot, and after Gillette, Richard Gordon took over the of the remaining 34 programs in the series.
On November 18, 1935, Gillette, 82 years old, made his own Sherlock Holmes on WABC radio in New York. His play again be re-adapted by Edith Meiser. Reginald Mason played Dr. Watson and Charles Bryant played Professor Moriarty. It lasted 50 minutes. This work also was the pilot for a new series of Holmes Lux Radio Theater. The New York Times said that Gillette is "still the best, with all its nuances and improvisation."
As a novelist
1927, Astounding Crime on Torrington Road. Only the mystery of the novel.
Legacy
Tryon, North Carolina
In 1891, after first visit to Tryon, North Carolina, Gillette began construction of his bungalow, which later expanded into a house. He called thousand pine trees and private property today. In recent years, in November, the city celebrated the Festival Tryon William Gillette, Gillette honor.
Read about the Tryon Festival 1998 (Link external)
New York City
On December 7, 1934, Gillette attended the first dinner meeting of the Baker Street Irregulars in New York. Today, the BSI is honored with the William Gillette Memorial Luncheon on Friday afternoon at their annual meeting in January in New York.
From Baker Street Irregular weekend, the annual meeting the oldest literary society devoted to Sherlock Holmes (External link)
The illusion of first
As a theorist, Gillette is remembered by the illusion the first time in office, a paper containing nothing new, but all that was important for performance on stage, first included in a single expression. While all this is common knowledge today, was revolutionary when he wrote, and was an important starting point for the theatrical tradition and practice. Booth, Macready, Kean, Forrest, and Boucicault would have dismissed. The naturalness and realism, while waiting for today, and the norm, not the scope of the old school.
However, well into the twenty-first century, there is not a concept referred to more often than the illusion of the first time. Reference is made again and again in a school or another, in a review critical or otherwise, and in 2001, specific references, by name, description, the same applies to two of the best players in the new generation.
DK Holm wrote of Johnny Depp in the Portland Mercury, American playwright and actor William Gillette called good quality as the illusion of the first time. This is strong Depp suit.46]
And Steve Vineberg wrote to Robert Downey, Jr. at that time on the hit Fox television series, Ally McBeal and more recently the last actor for Sherlock Holmes, here is a mysterious beauty to the reading of The Lord of Downey (lines), not only in its application of what William Gillette called illusion trick the first time the actors to make the lines sound as if they were freshly minted, but more moving in the struggle to admit Larry the feelings that tend to sink, and both call loss.47]
Dating
"Elementary, my dear friend! Primary!"
"There is not the reason in the world for what we can do in this business also dismissed any other country on earth. We farewellers and people to say goodbye al. If I can not keep that up I'll be even with my competitors in the spring of 1922, and by the winter of 1937 I will be fine in the lead. "
"Simply seems, somehow, that every five years, I found again, so I can wait to come back again once more in 1941. Probably in 1976 when the bicentenary the beginning of the Declaration of Independence, or what it is, 40 years, I'll still be farewelling. I must apologize for being here, but I am a male Yankees and take the promises with a grain of salt, in fact, usually take home and gherkins in brine, probably knew he would be back. In addition I have several good excuses, but that does not really count. And again, and that men who follow horse racing know what it means I'm not running against anyone, they are simply let me jog around the track. "
"The sort of farewell, Well, Merry Christmas."
References
^ Brief biography of Henry Zecher web - Http://www.henryzecher.com/gillettebio.htm
^ Riley, Dick, Pam McAllister (2005). The bedside companion to Sherlock Holmes. Barnes and Noble Books. 5960 pp. ISBN 978-0-7607-7156-3; Brief biography of Henry Zecher web - http://www.henryzecher.com/gillettebio.htm.
^ See Andrews, Kenneth R., Corner Farm, Mark Twain's Hartford Circle (Harvard University Press, 1950) and Van Why, Joseph S., Nook Farm (Harriet Beecher Stowe Center in Hartford, Connecticut, 1975).
^ Andrews, Kenneth R., Corner Farm, Circle of Mark Twain in Hartford (Harvard University Press, 1950).
^ Hooker, Edward W., descendants of Rev. Thomas Hooker, Hartford, Connecticut, 1586-1908 (edited by Margaret Huntington Hooker and printed for her in Rochester, NY, 1909, reprint of the Legacy series, Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2007).
^ Note Sacramento Daily Union, August 8, 1859, edited by David Murray, Superintendent of City Cemetery, said: Mortality of the city. The mortality rate 1860 in the List of California State Library in Sacramento is an entry in Gillett, Frank A., 23, male, CT ready for state of birth and died August listed as farmers for the occupation, and died in Sacramento County; enumeration district 2, Municipality of the City of Sacramento.
^ Burton, Nathaniel J., Speaking January 29, 1865, in memory of Robert H. Gillette (Press of Wiley, Waterman and Eaton), 1865.
^ Robinson, Charles M., Hurricane III, fire, The Union Assault on Fort Fisher (Naval Institute Press, 1998), p. 184; Gragg, Rod, Confederate Goliath, the Battle of Fort Fisher (Harper Collins, 1991) p. 235, Hartford Courant, "The death of Gillette Payer," January 21, 1865, p. 2, Burton, Nathaniel J., a speech delivered January 29, 1865, in memory of Robert H. Gillette.
^ Duffy, Richard, "Gillette, actor and playwright," Ainslee Magazine, vol. VI, No. 1 August 1900, p. 54.
^ Letter to George Warner, Correspondence Gillette, Harriet Beecher Stowe Center, Hartford, Connecticut.
Gillette is past ^ Francisco, signed October 12, 1877, City of Hartford Attorneys Records 1876 to 1880, Microfilm # LDS1314362, CSL # 986, continued on LDS # 987, pages 435-436 and 539-541.
^ Helen Gillette Death Certificate Statistics Vital City Clerk's Office, City of Greenwich, Connecticut, September 1, 1888.
^ Frohman, Daniel Frohman, Daniel presents an Autobiography (Kendall Claude and Willoughby Sharp, 1935), p. 51; Gerzina, Gretchen, by Frances Hodgson Burnett (Chatto & Windus, 2004), p. 89, 93-95, 99, Gillette, William, Esmeralda, in The Century Magazine, vol. XXIII, New Series, Vol I, November 1881 to April 1882 (The Century Co., 1882), pp 513-531, Hartford Courant, musements, Esmeralda, November 06, 1882 p. 3, New York Times, RS. Burnett New Play, October 30, 1881, p. 8.
^ Leslie, Amy, some players (Herbert S. Stone & Company, 1899), p. 302.
Strang ^, C. Lewis, famous actors of the day in the U.S. (LC Page and Company, 1900), p. 178.
Schüttler ^, William George, William Gillette, actor and director (An unpublished thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Oral Communication in the Graduate School of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1975), p. 97; Schüttler, Jorge Guillermo, (1983) "William Gillette: Marathon Actor and playwright," Vol The Journal of Popular Culture. 17, Issue 3 Winter 1983, pp 115 129. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3840.1983.1703_115.x, p. 124-125.
^ Dahlinger, SE, which we never knew Sherlock Holmes, Baker Street Journal, vol. 49, No. 3, September 1999, p. 10.
^ Moses, J. Montrose, American playwright (Little, Brown and Company, 1925), p. 369.
^ Morehouse, Ward, Matinee Tomorrow (Whittlesey House, 1949), p. 23.
^ Finletter, Gretchen, from the top of the ladder (Little, Brown, 1946), p. 44.
^ Sherk, H. Dennis, William Gillette: His Life and Works (in English an unpublished thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Graduate School Department English at Pennsylvania State University, June 1961), pp 199-200.
↑ New York Times, illiam Gillette, actor, dead at age 81, April 30 1937, p. 21.
^ Murphy, Brenda, realism and the drama of Latin America, 1880-1940 (Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. 162; Dithmar, Edward, ecret Service Harper's Weekly, October 10, 1896, p. 215.
^ Burton, Richard, illiam Gillette, the book buyer, February 1898, p. 28.
^ Films for the Humanities http://www.films.com/Films_Home/Item.cfm/1/6018 and Sciences.
^ Decree No. 389 294, ethod of scenic effects, September 11, 1887, USA Patent Office.
^ In the United States Patent and Trademark Office, Letters Patent No. 289,404, Filed April 25, 1883, granted December 4, 1883, the patent Letter No. 300,966, filed May 2, 1883, granted June 24, 1884, Letters Patent No. 302,559, filed on May 14, 1883, and approved July 29, 1884, and letters patent No. 309,537, filed on December 5, 1883, published December 23, 1884.
↑ New York Sun Journal, September 11, 1887, quoted in Schüttler, George William, William Gillette, actor and playwright, p. 11, Price, ED, FGS, editor, Encyclopedia Hazell Annual (London: Hazell, Watson and Viney, 1888), p. 191, Deshler, Welch, editor, The Theatre, vol. III, No. 6, April 25, 1887, Whole No. 58, Theater (Teatro Editorial, 1888), p. 107; Times of London, "Princess Theater, "April 4, 1887, p. 5; Daily Telegraph of London," the Princess Theatre, "April 4, 1887, p. 3.
^ Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan, Memoirs and Adventures (Wordsworth Editions Limited, 2007), p. 87, Vincent Starrett, The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (The Macmillan Company, 1933), p. 139.
↑ New York Times Francisco hotel fire, ucky Baldwin House in ruins by the flames, the loss of life can be great, only two bodies of the victims so far recovered at the Palace Theatre Burned In addition, November 24, 1898, p. 1.
^ Shepstone, Harold J., "Mr. William Gillette as Sherlock Holmes," The Strand Magazine, April 1901, p. 615.
^ Higham, Charles, The Adventures of Conan Doyle, the life of the creator of Sherlock Holmes (WW Norton & Company, Inc., 1976), pp 153-154; Encyclopedia Sherlockiana, illetta, William (MacMillan, 1994), p. 90.
^ Cullen, Rosemary, and Don B. Wilmeth, Plays of William Hooker Gillette (Cambridge University Press, 1983) p. 16 reproductions of Gillette William Cullen Romero, Don B. Wilmeth.
^ Gillette, William H., The painful dilemma of Sherlock Holmes (Ben Abramson, 1955).
^ Magazine Vanity Fair, "Sherlock Holmes", February 27, 1907, the Front.
^ Smith, Pamela Coleman, William Gillette as Sherlock Holmes (RH Russell, 1900).
^ Celebrity Caricature in America, http://www.npg.si.edu/exh/caricatures/intro.htm.
Ab ^ Washington Post, "Gillette Castle," February 2 1936, p. B6.
^ Monagan, A. Charles, Connecticut Icons: 50 Symbols of the Nutmeg State, illetta Castillo (Globe Pequot, 2006), p. 77; Ojeda, Miguel, Circle Holmes (Harold Stackhurst) Tuesday, May 20, 2008 (Tuesday, May 20, 2008).
^ Van Name, Fred, Gillette Castle in Hadlyme, a state park (Cartoons from Connecticut Copyright Fred Van Name, 1956).
^ Gillette, William, Last Will and Testament, 1/27/37; Ourantes Hartford, illetta Calls Will not sell your home to lithering bobo, May 4, 1937, p. 1.
^ 9 National Register of Historic Places www.nationalregisterof historicplaces.com / CT / New + London/state4.html.
^ Letters of greeting and congratulations received by William Gillette on the occasion of his farewell to the stage in Sherlock Holmes (1929).
^ William Gillette Medical Certificate death, the State of Connecticut Department of Health, signed by Dr. John A. Wentworth, April 29, 1937.
^ Oonnor, J. John, V: HBO offers Herlock Holmes, The New York Times, November 19, 1981.
^ Holm, DK, Nose Johnny Depp movie is really the best actor in Hollywood, The Portland ercury, vol. 1, No. 44, April 5-April 11, 2001, http://www.portlandmercury.com/portland/Content?oid=24307&category=22133.
^ Vineberg, Steve, elivering real thing 'Ally McBeal' EMI New York, Sunday TELEVISION / RADIO, March 18, 2001 http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B05E6D6113AF93BA25750C0A9679C8B63.
^ Gillette, William, Sherlock Holmes, Play A, which exhibits the strange case of Miss Alice Faulkner (Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1935), p. 82.
^ New York Times: "The Tour Au Revoir ", October 17, 1915, the Society of Music Summer fashion queries and pages White House Hotel and Restaurant Drama, p. X8.
Ab ^ Hartford Courant, "Death Gillette Stamps Retirement past," April 30, 1937, p. 1, 6.
"Sherlock Holmes: The Published Apocrypha, edited by Jack Tracy.
"The Final Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, edited by Peter Haining.
Most of this information is from the full-length biography of William Gillette Henry Zecher, soon [when?] To be published by the press Mountainside in Shaftsbury, Vermont.
External Links
William Gillette at the Internet Movie Database
Introduction William Gillette
The Baker Street Journal - writings about Sherlock Holmes
Gillette Castle in Connecticut
Gillette website biographer Henry Zecher, whose biography of long duration is short to be published by the press Mountainside in Shaftsbury, Vermont
William Gillette at Find A Grave
American actors | American dramatists and playwrights: Categories | People from Hartford, Connecticut | Sherlock Holmes | 1853 births | 1937 deaths | Deaths by pulmonary hemorrhageHidden categories: Articles with statements without power in March 2008 | All articles with no source statements | Vague or ambiguous time About the Author

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